Research on peripheral vascular disease.
Research on peripheral vascular disease.
Respond to Marlys Oliver post with two references. Describe and discuss one of the latest research on peripheral vascular disease and the latest ASSESSMENT and client teaching in the prevention of this major body system. Peripheral vascular disease is a blood circulation disorder that can happen in arteries or veins outside the heart or the brain, causing the blood vessels to narrow, block, or spam and causing blood flow to decrease. Common symptoms include fatigue and pain, usually in the legs while exercising, and improvement with rest (Marcin, 2018).
The most common cause of PVD is the buildup of plaque inside the artery wall, known as atherosclerosis. Blood clots that can be formed in the artery wall block off the major arteries by decreasing the blood vessel\’s inner size. The treatment goal is restoring blood flow and preventing disease progression. According to Peripheral Vascular Disease 2021, patients with the highest risk will be: patients over 50 years old, patients with heart conditions, usually male patients, women in the postmenopausal stage of life, and people with a family history of hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and high cholesterol. Modifiable risk includes hyperglycemia, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, overweight and physical inactivity. The most common test used to diagnose PVD includes an X-ray of the arteries and veins to detect blockage or narrowing, called an angiogram. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) compares the blood pressure in the ankle with the blood pressure in the arm using a regular blood pressure cuff and a Doppler ultrasound device. Doppler ultrasound flow studies using high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Doppler ultrasound flow studies use high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Magnetic resonance angiography. The treadmill exercise test uses to monitor blood circulation during exercise. Photoplethysmography (PPG) similar to the brachial-ankle index. Pulse volume recording (PVR) waveform analysis and Pulse volume recording (PVR) waveform analysis, which is similar to an ABI (Peripheral Vascular Disease, 2021).Assessment of peripheral vascular disease
Assessment for the peripheral vascular disease includes obtaining pertinent information from the patient by asking if there are any leg pain or cramps present and the location of the pain, asking the patient to describe the type of pain (in case of pain) and if it gets worse when the patient walks or do any activities. Ask the patient if there is any history of vascular problems, a heart condition, history of diabetes or hypertension, obesity, etc. Find out if the patient had noticed any swelling in the arms or legs, any lymph nodes enlargement, and which medications a patient took. It is essential to obtain a history of smoking since Tobacco smoking can cause arteries to spasm and constrict, decreasing blood flow to the extremities. Inspect arms and legs for skin color. Palpate to check for temperature, texture, turgor of the skin. Check for a capillary refill. Palpate radial, ulnar, and brachial pulses in both arms. Check for the epitrochlear lymph nodes through palpation; these nodes typically are not palpable. Check for tenderness while flexing the patient\’s knees and gently compress the calf against the tibia; no tender should be present. Assess the inguinal lymph nodes. Palpate peripheral arteries bilateral, including femoral, popliteal, dorsalis, pedis, and posterior tibial (Jarvis, 2020).
Patient TeachingCheck the feet often. Always look for any change in coloration on the skin, any blisters or cuts, check for any red spots, ingrown toenails, etc. Wash your feet regularly and dry them carefully. Keep\’s toenail trimmed. Keep yourself active. Never be barefoot. Keep the skin on your foot soft and smooth (Jarvis, 2020).On pages 633 and 634 of Jarvis book, how do you correlate these assessment findings in preventing and managing stroke. What are the latest assessment and treatments in managing stroke?A stroke is the disruption of the blood supply to a part of the brain, resulting in a sign of loss of brain function.
In the United States is the 5th most common cause of death. According to Jarvis 2020, evidence from more than 180 countries worldwide for over more than 20 years of data collection demonstrated that 90% of the stroke burden was due to modifiable risk factors. That is why it\’s essential while assessing a patient to find out a tobacco smoking history, diet, and physical activity, also accessing for metabolic factors as finding out if the patient has high blood pressure, obesity, hyperglycemia, high cholesterol. A stroke doesn\’t occur most of the time by managing and controlling modifying risk factors and baseline conditions.
When assessing a patient for an acute phase of stroke, it\’s important to check for changes in the level of consciousness or responsiveness; check for voluntary or involuntary movement of the extremities; neck stiffness or flaccidity; check the eyes if both open and compare the size of the pupils and the reaction to light; the ability to speak; check the blood pressure, etc. (Belleza, 2021).
Treatment in managing strokes include controlling high blood pressure; hypertension can increase a stroke\’s risk by two to four times. Maintain a healthy lifestyle by having a healthy weight, not smoking, following a healthy diet, daily exercise. Also, teaching the patients how to control heart disorders like atrial fibrillation, a risk factor for strokes (Jarvis, 2020)
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