Peripheral vascular disease (PAD) Discussion 2

Peripheral vascular disease (PAD) Discussion 2

Peripheral vascular disease (PAD) Discussion 2

Peripheral vascular disease (PAD) includes all blood vessel system vascular disorders found outside of the heart. The outcome is the reduction of blood flow to the lower extremities, brain, and heart. It also indicates a widespread accumulation of fatty deposits in the arteries. PAD remains overlooked and underdiagnosed, as most people with this condition do not have any signs and symptoms. However, current research indicates that PAD patients tend to experience many issues such as repeated hospitalizations due to ischemic rest pain and limb loss. Shu and Santulli (2018) state that failure to diagnose and treat PAD results in poor quality of life and higher rates of depression among these patients. The current research on peripheral vascular diseases targets to improve its management. Individuals diagnosed with PAD are treated and managed primarily to decrease cardiovascular-related sickness and improve their symptoms. PAD presents a high risk of contracting cardiovascular-related illnesses such as stroke, cardiac attack, and hypertension. Hence, the management and prevention targets to decrease associated cardiovascular risks.

The healthcare workers must educate the patients on the risk factors associated with peripheral vascular disease to prevent its occurrence and progression to individuals already diagnosed. Some of the modifiable risks include tobacco use and cholesterol levels. Hence, the patient must be educated on the significance of smoking cessation and engaging in regular physical activity to improve their quality of life (Shu & Santulli, 2018). It is vital to conduct a physical exam on patients to identify any family history of cardiovascular-related diseases, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. They form a significant risk of contracting peripheral vascular diseases.Question TwoStoke Management

The auscultation of heart sounds plays a significant role in assessing and diagnosing heart-related issues such as stroke. The S4 should be absent in an average adult; hence, whenever it is heard, this signifies myocardial ischemia, which is a primary characteristic of stroke. Stroke is associated with a lack of adequate perfusion and blood flow to the vital organs such as the heart and the brain. Hence, the fourth heart sound aids in prompt treatment of stroke, thus preventing its associated complications. The palpation of a thrill on the precordium indicates reduced blood flow to the heart as it indicates aortic stenosis (Jarvis, 2019). It thus signals possibilities of ischemia of the heart and brain; hence, detecting the cause of this ischemia aids in the secondary prevention of strokes. Peripheral vascular disease (PAD) Discussion 2

Stroke is a primary cause of mortality and disability globally; hence, its detection and management should be treated as an emergency. The assessment and management of stroke have continued to receive significant improvements from scientific findings. The latest assessment of patients with stroke targets to evaluate airway breathing and circulation. The healthcare practitioner then quickly obtains a concise history and physical exam to initiate treatment. According to Blanc et al. (2017), the goal of treating stroke is to restore the blood flow to the damaged areas in the brain as fast as possible. Some of the latest approved treatment options for stroke include endovascular procedures that target removing the clot, impeding blood flow to vital organs. This is a necessary procedure that has helped decrease the high mortality rate among patients diagnosed with a stroke. The antiplatelet regimen has been an effective mode of secondary prevention among patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Hence, these patients combined with those at risk of occlusive vascular events are usually prescribed low-dose aspirin.





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