(NCD) Action Plan Voluntary Global Targets.

(NCD) Action Plan Voluntary Global Targets.

(NCD) Action Plan Voluntary Global Targets.

In Chapter 14, according to Skolnik, 2020, on page 430, there are several framework elements (4 of these elements) in the Global Noncommunicable Disease (NCD) Action Plan Voluntary Global Targets. Discuss the four elements and the selected policy measures in the global NCD Action Plan. According to Skolnik (2020), noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are responsible for more than 70% of deaths around the globe, annually. Like communicable diseases many measures can be taken to prevent and reduce the burden noncommunicable diseases. In 2013, World Health Organization, (WHO) has adopted the Global NCD Action Plan Voluntary Global Targets which contains some measures to take in order to modify the curve of the burden of noncommunicable diseases by the end of 2025. This action plan has addressed four elements and has suggested policy measures that all countries should take. The four framework elements are: mortality and morbidity, behavioral and biological risk factors, and national system response. Each framework element targets some objectives. Regarding mortality and mortality, WHO aims to reduce by 25 % all deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. On the behavioral risk factors, the target is to reduce alcohol use by 10%, physical inactivity by 10%, salt/sodium intake by 30%, and tobacco use by 30%. Acting on biological risk factors, prevalence of elevated blood pressure should be reduced by 25%. Diabetes and obesity rise should slow down. In term of national system response, all countries should be able to provide treatment and counseling for 50% of people living with stroke and heart attacks.Many policy measures have been also adopted regarding tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, cancer, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, cardiovascular diseases and diseases. Table 14-9 in Skolnik (2020) has described in detail these selected measures. A example, hepatitis vaccines are recommended for all newborns in order to prevent liver cancer.Skolnik, R. (2020), Global Health 101, fourth edition.On page 456, Chapter 15, According to Skolnik 2020, what injuries cause the most deaths in low-income families and the most cost-effective steps that low-income and middle-income countries can take to reduce the burden of road traffic accidents on health? According to Skolnik (2020), the leading cause of injuries in low-income and middle-income countries was road injuries in 2016. Many measures can be taken in order to prevent the burden of road traffic accident, such as better road engineering, enforcing speed limits, wearing helmets, driving under influence laws. In addition, one important report reminded low- and middle-income countries of the importance of investing in a multidisciplinary approach to road safety as they increase motorization to avoid problems of road traffic accidents later” (Skolnik, 2020, pp 1751-1752 pdf).Skolnik, R. (2020), Global Health 101, fourth edition.

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