Effectiveness of the sampling method selected

Effectiveness of the sampling method selected

Effectiveness of the sampling method selected

Select a research article, other than the articles from your assignments, from the GCU library. Provide an overview of the study and describe the strategy that was used to select the sample from the population. Evaluate the effectiveness of the sampling method selected. Provide support for your answer. Include the article title and permalink in your post.

Identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important.

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Communicating with Patients and their Families about Palliative and End of Life: Comfort and Educational Needs of Staff RNs

Cheryl Moir, RN/CHPN [Care Coordinator], Home Care/Hospice, St. Luke’s Health System, 190 E. Bannock St., Boise, ID 83712

Renee Roberts, BSN RN [Clinical Nurse], Bone Marrow Transplant, University of Colorado Hospital, 12505 E. 16th St, Aurora, CO 80045

Kim Martz, PhD RN [Assistant Professor], Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725

Judith Perry, MSN, ACHPN [Nurse Practitioner—Board Certified], and Home Care/Hospice, St. Luke’s Health System, 190 E. Bannock St., Boise, ID 83712

Laura J. Tivis, PhD, CCRP [Nursing Research Director] St. Luke’s Health System, 190 E. Bannock St., Boise, ID 83712

Abstract

Introduction—Effectively discussing palliative care with patients and families requires knowledge and skill. The purpose of this study was to determine perceived needs of inpatient

nurses for communicating with patients and families about palliative and end of life care. Effectiveness of the sampling method selected

Method—A non-experimental design was utilized. Sixty inpatient nurses completed the End of Life Professional Caregiver survey.

Results—Effects for years of experience and unit were found [F(9,131.57)=2.22, p=0.0246; Wilk’s Λ=0.709 and F(6,110)=2.49, p=0.0269]. For all three domains (Patient and Family-

Centered Communication, Cultural and Ethical Values, and Effective Care Delivery) years of

nursing experience was positively associated with comfort in communicating about end of life

care. Oncology nurses reported were most comfortable with regard to patient and family-centered

communication.

Discussion—The success and sustainability of this service is dependent on education for healthcare providers. Studies are needed to determine best ways to meet this educational

challenge.

Keywords

Palliative Care; End of Life Care; End of Life Professional Caregiver survey; Patient-Centered Communication

Direct correspondence to: Cheryl Moir RN/CHPN, St. Luke’s Health System, Hospice and Palliative Care, 190 E. Bannock St., Boise, ID 83712; moirc@slhs.org; Telephone: (208) 850-3498; FAX: (208) 381-2725.

Conflicts of Interest The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.

HHS Public Access Author manuscript Int J Palliat Nurs. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 March 01.

Published in final edited form as: Int J Palliat Nurs. 2015 March ; 21(3): 109–112. doi:10.12968/ijpn.2015.21.3.109.

Author Manuscript Author Manuscript

Author Manuscript Author Manuscript

Introduction

Our review of the literature and our own experiences led us to postulate that inpatient staff

nurses may not be prepared to provide optimal care to end of life (EOL) and palliative care

patients and their families (Chan and Webster, 2011; Patel, Gorawara-Bhat, Levine, and

Shega, 2012; Prem, Karvannan, Kumar et al., 2012; Agustinus, Wai Chi Chan, 2013).

Palliative care patients can continue to seek curative treatments while evaluating their goals

and care needs. End-of-life (EOL) care patients usually are no longer receiving aggressive

curative treatment; instead they are receiving comfort care only. In the US, the word

“hospice” is interchangeable or synonymous with EOL care. These patients usually die at

home or in the intensive care unit limiting the contact a regular staff nurse may have in

providing care to them. Nurses skilled and comfortable in communicating with patients and

families about EOL (hospice) and palliative care may improve the quality of life and patient

satisfaction in the hospital setting.

Some patients transition during a hospital stay from curative-based care to hospice care.

Whether the transition is made smoothly and gradually, depends on the kind of

communication and education patients receive from doctors, nurses, and other caregivers

while in the hospital (Adams, 2005; Beck, Tornquist, Brostrom and Edberg, 2012; Brummen

and Griffiths, 2013). Palliative care options should be provided in a way that helps patients

understand its goals and how it differs from end of life care. However, many people opt for

palliative care only when they are very close to the end of their lives (Raljmakers et al.,

2011; Wilson, Gott and Ingleton, 2011).

It seems reasonable to think that a lack of education and accompanying uneasiness among

clinical nurses in discussing palliative care with patients and their families may negatively

impact the transition from curative-based care to hospice care. The current research focused

on the role of the nurse during the transition in patients’ lives from curative to palliative

care. The study aim was to determine the perceived educational needs of inpatient staff

nurses in our facility when communicating with patients and families about palliative and

EOL care.

Study Design / Methodology

A non-experimental survey design was utilized to examine differences by the age of the

nurse, years of nursing experience, and the unit on which he/she worked.

To measure palliative and EOL educational needs among nurses (i.e., their current degree of

comfort in caring for this population) the End-of-Life Professional Caregiver Survey was

distributed to a convenience sample of clinical nurses working exclusively in telemetry,

oncology and critical care units (EPCS; Lazenby, Ercolano, Schulman-Green and McCorkle,

2012). Permission to use the EPCS was granted by the authors. The EPCS is a 28-item,

psychometrically valid scale developed to assess the palliative and EOL educational needs

of professionals and was validated in a large study encompassing doctors, nurses and social

workers (Lazenby et al., 2012). For each item, a Likert-style scale is presented where 1=Not

at All, and 5=Very Much. Items represent care-provider comfort with a variety of situations

related to palliative and EOL care (e.g., “I am comfortable helping families to accept a poor

Moir et al. Page 2

Int J Palliat Nurs. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 March 01.

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prognosis”). Higher scores indicate greater skill or comfort. Three distinct factors were

identified by Lazenby et al. (2012): 1) Patient and Family-Centered Communication

(PFCC), 2) Cultural and Ethical Values (CEV), and 3) Effective Care Delivery (ECD). See Effectiveness of the sampling method selected

Lazenby et al (2012) for factor loading (p.429).

Data collection began following approval from the hospital Institutional Review Board

(IRB). Permission to distribute the survey was also acquired from individual unit managers

prior to distribution. Data was collected over a one month period. We had sixty participants

respond.


 

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