A discussion on prostate Cancer.

A discussion on prostate Cancer.

A discussion on prostate Cancer.

Prostate Cancer: Respond to Ivette Fonseca post using 3 references.

During the physical examination, a Digital Rectal Examination is usually conducted to evaluate the prostate gland\’s status. A normal prostate gland weighs approximately 20 to 25 grams and should feel smooth and easy to palpate. The abnormal findings may indicate a uniformly enlarged prostate that feels firm and rubbery when palpated (Jarvis, 2019). According to the statistic produced by the American Cancer Society (ACS), Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer affecting males over the age of 65. The diagnosis of prostate cancer is rare in men under the age of 40 years. The main problem associated with prostate cancer is the lack of knowledge about the disease in the population. It is diagnosed in over 16500 Americans annually, and the new ACS’s estimates indicate that it has accounted for approximately 34130 deaths in men (\”Key statistics for prostate cancer,\” n.d.). The growth of the prostate tumor is often gradual and begins in the posterior side. It has the potential to causes metastasis in the urethral mucosa, bladder wall, lumbar spine, and lungs.


Causes/ Risk Factors

The primary cause of prostate cancer remains unknown, but it has been associated with mutations of the DNA and hereditary traits. However, several factors may increase the chances of developing prostate cancer in an individual. Age is a common risk factor for acquiring prostate cancer as it is often diagnosed in men over 65years. Other risk factors include a family history of prostate cancer, ethnicity (found to be more common in non-Hispanic black men), inherited gene changes such as the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes doubles the risk of men developing prostate cancer (\”Key statistics for prostate cancer,\” n.d.). Some factors have been associated with having an impact on prostate cancer but with little evidence, including high calcium diet, obesity, smoking, and sexually transmitted infections (\”Key statistics for prostate cancer,\” n.d.).



The exact prevention of prostate cancer is still unknown, but individuals can aim at leading a healthy lifestyle to reduce their chances of contracting the disease. According to the ACS, a healthy diet composed of fruits, vegetables, and low calcium combined with regular physical activity can help minimize prostate cancer risk. Some medications have also been proven to effectively reduce the rate of prostate cancer, such as the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. This medication prevents the formation of dihydrotestosterone, a primary contributor to the growth of the prostate gland. High levels of testosterone have been associated with prostate cancer; hence by blocking this action, the levels decrease, and the chances of developing prostate cancer also reduce.


Healthcare providers need to create awareness on prostate cancer hence need to include the physical assessment of the prostate gland during history taking. This helps in evaluating normal and abnormal findings and begin early treatment. The male should be educated on the significance of early detection of prostate cancer. This is because treatment is very effective during the early stages, thus preventing mortality cases. Even though prostate cancer in its early stages is associated with no symptoms, it is essential to conduct early screening. During the advanced stages, prostate cancer is associated with various symptoms such as weakness in the lower extremities, urinary system difficulties, erectile dysfunction, and hematuria. Therefore, the health promotion teaching strategies should comprise of the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer.

Colorectal Cancer


Subjective data

Subjective data are information from a patient’s point of view. It includes feelings, perceptions, and concerns exhibited during interviews. Objective data are measurable and observable data. Colorectal cancer commences when healthy cells in the colon or rectal lining transform and grow out of control. A patient with colorectal cancer will complain of abdominal pain, cramping, and abdominal distention (American Cancer Society). Changes in bowel habits will also be observed, including constipation and diarrhea. The patient will also have a feeling that bowels do not empty. Narrowing of stool will also be observed. Furthermore, a patient will have rectal bleeding, dark stools, or blood in the stool. The patient will also complain of weakness and fatigue (Jarvis, 2019). There may also be weight loss with no known cause.



Colorectal cancer has been estimated to be the third most common cancer among both genders in the United States, excluding skin cancers. The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be 104,270 and 45,230 new colon cancer cases and rectal cancer, respectively in 2021. Colorectal cancer is ranked as the second deadliest cancer disease in the United States in both men and women combined. The incidence of colorectal cancer in developed countries is 3-4 times that in developing nations. However, this statistic has been changing gradually. Over the years, the incidence has been rising steadily worldwide, especially in developing countries that have adopted the “Western” lifestyle. Obesity, tobacco, alcohol, and sedentary lifestyle are the reason for this rise.



Lifetime Risk

Anything that has the probability of increasing your chances of getting sick is what is referred to as a risk factor. In the case of cancer, different malignancies have different risk factors. However, having a risk does not mean that one will suffer from an illness. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors both exist. Modifiable risk factors are those factors that one can change, while non-modifiable are those that one cannot change (American Cancer Society). Modifiable risk factors are lifestyle-related. Examples of modifiable risk factors include diet, weight, and exercise.

Being overweight (and obese), physically inactive, and taking certain diet types increases one’s risk of developing colorectal cancer. A diet high in red meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Cooking meat at very high temperatures also creates chemicals that raise one’s cancer risk. Smoking and alcohol use is also considered a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

Non-modifiable risk factors for colorectal cancer include old age, family history, personal history of colorectal polyps or cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, and having an inherited syndrome. Examples of inherited syndromes include lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). African Americans and people with type 2 diabetes also have a high risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Mortality Rates

Statistics for mortality are calculated using 5-year relative survival rates, which compares people with the same cancer type and stage to people in the overall population. This rate tells what percentage of people will live five years after the cancer is found (American Cancer Society). The survival rate for localized, regional, distant, and all stages combined in colon cancer between 2010 and 2016 is 91%, 72%, 14%, and 63%, respectively. In that period, that for rectal cancer is 89%, 72%, 16%, and 67%, respectively. A discussion on prostate Cancer.

Assessment of colorectal cancer

Assessment for colorectal cancer involves both physical examination and history taking obtained from the patient. Data obtained is both objective and subjective data. Subjective data has already been discussed. Physical examination falls under objective data. Physical examination includes inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation. On inspection, there should be a localized distention (Jarvis, 2019). Bowel sounds should be normal on auscultation. Percussion should exhibit dullness over mass if the tumor reaches up to the skin. On palpation, one should clearly name the borders and have them different from an enlarged organ or normally palpable structure. A discussion on prostate Cancer.




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